Surveillance goal: Infection surveillance and/or pathogen surveillance
Surveillance principle: Ward based
Patient group: Inpatients
Intensive care units (ICUs) can perform surveillance for healthcare-associated infections (HAI) as well as for multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) or Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD). ICUs can select one type of surveillance (for infections or for pathogens) or perform both types. All kinds of ICU may participate, including pediatric and neonatal ICUs.
Infection surveillance is described in the Protocol for HAI Surveillance on ICUs (see below). The three most common HAI on ICUs are lower respiratory tract infections, bloodstream infections and urinary tract infections and must be recorded. Device usage (CVC, PVC, intubation) is taken into account. The surveillance of other infections with or without device usage (e.g. ventricular-drainage associated meningitis) is optional.
Pathogen surveillance is described in the Protocol for Patients with MDROs or CDAD (see below). Patients with MRSA, VRE, multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria (MDGN, infection and colonization) and CDAD (infection only) can be included in surveillance. Community-onset and hospital-onset infections are both included. Each type of pathogen may be selected individually.&nb
Kohlenberg A, Schwab F, Behnke M, Geffers Ch, Gastmeier P.
Pneumonia associated with invasive and noninvasive ventilation: an analysis of the German nosocomial infection surveillance system database.
Intensive Care Med 2010; 36(): 971-8.
Meyer E, Sohr D, Gastmeier P, Geffers C.
New idendification of outliers and ventilator-associated pneumonia rates from 2005 to 2007 within the german Nosocomial Infection Surveillance System.
Journal of Hospital Infection 2009; 73(): 246-252.
Kohlenberg A, Schwab F,Geffers C, Behnke M, Rüden H, Gastmeier P.
Time-trends for gram-negative and multidrug-resistant gram-positive bacteria associated with nosocomial infections in German intensive care units between 2000 and 2005.
Clin Micro Infect 2008, 14(): 93-96.
Gastmeier P, Sohr D, Geffers C, Behnke M, Rüden H.
Risk factors for death due to nosocomial infection in intensive care unit patients: findings from the Krankenhaus Infektions Surveillance System.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2007 Apr; 28(4):466-72.
Zuschneid I, Geffers C, Sohr D, Kohlhase C, Schumacher M, Rüden H, Gastmeier P.
Validation of surveillance in the intensive care unit component of the German nosocomial infections surveillance system.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2007 Apr; 28(4):496-9.
Zuschneid I, Schwab F, Geffers C, Behnke M, Rüden H, Gastmeier P.
Trends in ventilator-associated pneumonia rates within the German nosocomial infection surveillance system (KISS).
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2007 Mar; 28(3):314-8.